الرئيسية » سياسة » مجلس الشيوخ المصرى – التاريخ والمهام . كتب د.حمزه بركات

مجلس الشيوخ المصرى – التاريخ والمهام . كتب د.حمزه بركات


بدأت تجربة الحياة النيابية فى مصرمُنذ تولي محمد علي باشا حكم مصر فى عام 1805 ، حيث وضع اللائحة الأساسية لما سُمى بـ “المجلس العالي” للنظر فى بعض أمور الحكم وتنظيم العلاقة بين الحاكم والشعب ، وظل الأمر على هذا النحو حتى جاء الخديوي إسماعيل في 22 أكتوبر 1866 ، وقام بإنشاء أول برلمان نيابي بالمعنى الحقيقي، وهو “مجلس شورى النواب” ، ثم تحوّل هذا المجلس إلى ” مجلس النواب المصري” في عهد الخديوي توفيق عام 1881.
وبعد احتلال الإنجليز لمصر تم الغاء النظام النيابي ، واستبداله بنظام شكلى تحت مُسمى ” الجمعية العمومية ومجلس شورى القوانين” عام 1883 .
ثم إلغى هذا النظام الأخير فى عام 1913 ، وذلك بالنص على إنشاء ” الجمعية التشريعية “
ثم شهدت مصر فى عام 1923 تحولاً جذرياً ، حيث حصلت على الإستقلال عن بريطانيا .
ودخلت مرحلة جديدة فى طريق الديمقراطية بإعلان أول دستورمكتوب في 19 أبريل عام 1923 – الغى فى 1930 واعيد العمل به فى 1985- وأصبح البرلمان فى ظل هذا الدستور يتكون من غرفتين هما غرفة : مجلس النواب وغرفة مجلس الشيوخ.
وظل الوضع حتى الغى المجلسين عقب ثورة 23 يوليو وتم إنشاء ” مجلس الأمة ” عام1957.
ثم تلاه ” مجلس الأمة المشترك” عام 1960 عقب الوحدة بين مصروسوريا (الجمهورية العربية المشتركة)
ثم أنشئ ” مجلس الأمة ” عقب سقوط الجمهورية العربية المشتركة بين مصر وسوريا، .
وظل الوضع على هذا الحال خلال فترة العمل بالدستورالمؤقت لعام 1964.
ثم أنشئ ” مجلس الشعب ” عب صدور دستور 1971.
ثم تم العودة إلى فكرة وجود مجلسين تشريعيين في الحياة النيابية المصرية ، وذلك باستفتاء 19 أبريل 1979، على إعادة إنشاء مجلس الشيوخ المصرى تحت مُسمى “مجلس الشورى”.
وتم الغاء هذا المجلس ” مجلس الشورى اسماً – مجلس الشيوخ تاريخياً ” في دستور مصر 2014 .
وبحلول هذا العام 2020 تم إدخال اقرار التعديلات الدستورية على دستور2014 ، والتى تعنى العودة الثانية إلى فكرة وجود مجلسين تشريعيين في الحياة النيابية المصرية.
وبهذا تكون قد بدأت الخطوات التنفيذية نحو إنتاج كائن سياسى لطالما حظى بالاحترام الكبير فى النظم الديمقراطية المعتبرة ، حيث يتكون المجلس من 300 عضو منهم 100 بنظام القائمة و100 بالنظام الفردي و100 يعينهم رئيس الجمهورية.
وغالباً فإن الشروط الواجب توافرها فى المرشح لعضوية مجلس الشيوخ هى ذاتها نفس الشروط الواجب توافرها فى المرشح لمجلس النواب فيما التزيد فى شرط السن حال الترشح لعضوية (مجلس الشيوخ 35 بخلاف25 مجلس النواب)
هذا وقد حدد قانون مجلس الشيوخ رقم ١٤١ لسنة ٢٠٢٠عدداً من الاختصاصات الموكلة، وجاءت كالتالي:
المادة (7): يختص مجلس الشيوخ بدراسة واقتراح ما يراه كفيلاً بتوسيد دعائم الديمقراطية، ودعم السلام الاجتماعي والمقومات الأساسية للمجتمع وقيمه العليا والحقوق والحريات والواجبات العامة، وتعميق النظام الديمقراطي، وتوسيع مجالاته.
المادة (8): يؤخذ رأى مجلس الشيوخ فيما يأتي:
1- الاقتراحات الخاصة بتعديل مادة أو أكثر من مواد الدستور
2- مشروع الخطة العامة للتنمية الاجتماعية والاقتصادية
3- معاهدات الصلح والتحالف وجميع المعاهدات التى تتعلق بحقوق السيادة
4- مشروعات القوانين ومشروعات القوانين المكملة للدستور، التي تحال إليه من رئيس الجمهورية أو مجلس النواب
5- ما يحيله رئيس الجمهورية إلى المجلس من موضوعات تتصل بالسياسة العامة للدولة، أو بسياستها فى الشؤون العربية أو الخارجية.
ويجب على مجلس الشيوخ أن يبلغ رئيس الجمهورية ومجلس النواب برأيه فى هذه الأمور على النحو الذى تنظمه اللائحة.
وبالتالى فإن مجلس الشيوخ، بحكم الدستور، له مهام محددة وواضحة، وتختلف إلى حد ما عن مهام مجلس النواب ، ويمتازبأنه غالباَ يتكون من شيوخ وحكماء ذوى رؤى عميقة، فاضت حكمتهم العلمية والمعرفية لتستوعب المصالح الوطنية.
وكل الأمل أن تحظى مصر بمجلس للشيوخ يتناسب وحجم المخاطر والتحديات التى تحيط بنا، وتتضافر جهود أعضاء مجلسى الشيوخ والنواب فى دعم وتعزيز مسيرة الوطن نحو تعميق وترسيخ قواعد بناء الدولة المدنية الحديثة التى نرجوها جميعًا.

عن امل عشري بدران

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صرح رشدي عمر رئيس الجهاز التنفيذي لمياه الشرب والصرف الصحي بالمحافظة عن أن الاعتمادات المالية …

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